Gumboro is cause for huge loss in poultry business and threatens animal protein supply all over the world. It is an infectious disease of poultry otherwise known as infectious bursal disease IBD. It is a viral disease which causes immunosuppression in the system of birds within the age of 2 – 6 weeks old causing very high moralities of about 20 – 85% and the disease cause severe to the affected flock. Birds that recover from gumboro outbreak are usually strongly immune while chicks that has high maternal antibody may come down with gumboro if vaccinated.
- Poor biosecurity and hygiene;
- Vaccine failure and wrong vaccination timing;
- Poor level of maternal antibodies;
- High level of mycxotoxin in feed;
- Poor farm management;
- Stress i. e transfer from one pen to another, overcrowding; debeaking, poor litter management etc.
- High mortality and morbidity;
- Anorexia and depression;
- Ruffled feathers;
- Heamorrhages in abdominal, pectoral and thigh muscles;
- Heamorrhages at the junction of gizzard and proventriculus;
- Enlarged bursa of fabricius.
IBD virus is virulent and extremely difficult to eradicate. It can be transferred from one pen house to another and it cannotbe transmitted from parents to offsprings.
Litter, unclean surfaces or equipments, mites and farms with poor biosecurity can easily expose the birds for IBD virus.
Gumboro outbreak defers treatment but veterinarians has designed support therapies such as administration of antibiotics and vitamin to take care of secondary bacterial infections, this will help in preventing outright loss of the flock.
- Good biosecurity:
Standard management practices like separate footwears for different pens, thorough washing, disinfection and fumigation of the poultry house must be properly done before restocking, avoid multi-age in the same house,
Immunization of breeders and commercial stocks with live vaccines and oil based inactivated vaccine thereby maintaining healthy maternal antibody for the chicks,
- Excellent farm management:
Blood samples of the birds should be frequently sent to the laboratory to determine IBD titre level, proper handling or administration of vaccines, good hygiene, good nutrtion, maintain good biosecurity, execution of vaccination programme safe method of dead birds and litter disposal.
Poultry farmers must be carefully buying vaccines from reliable veterinary outlets and be guided by veterinarians on whether to use intermediate or hot strain of Gumboro vaccine during rearing.