Soya bean is a leguminous plant that play a crucial role in animal and human nutrition. It’s one of the world fastest growing crop used for foreign exchange earning.
It performs well in the south south,south east, south west and middle belt where annual rainfall is more than 700mm.
It grows best at a temperature of 70°F. Soya bean grows well on sandy loamy soil rich in organic matter with pH of 4.5 to 6.5 to achieve optimal yield.
It’s important to plant clean, viable and healthy seeds. High yielding and disease resistant varieties must be planted. Seed should be treated with fungicides like Apron plus at 1sachet/8kg of seeds for protection against soil borne disease.
Planting dates that are considered ideal for planting of Soya bean is June – July.
Soya beans grow best in loose and well-drained soil rich in organic matter. Soybeans prefer a soil pH of 6.0 to 6.8. Soybeans are tolerant of poor soil but yield will be low.
Cultivation of Soya Bean
To achieve an optimum output it is advisable for farmers to do a ploughing and harrowing twice before planting.
Good and treated seeds should be planted at 45 – 60 cm spacing between line and 4-5cm apart. Seed rate of 30 – 40kg seed/ha.
Pre-emergence herbicide like can bee applied before planting and later backed up with herbicide like Paraquat for efficient weed control.
Thin successful seedlings from 4 to 5 inches apart after 14 days so as to allow the plants grow rapidly.
Farm yard manure or compost can be applied at 15 tons per hectare to achieve optimum yield. Application of Single Super Phosphate at the rate of 30kg per hectare will improve yield.
Pest and Disease Control
The yield of Soya bean is usually greatly affected by by pests, therefore application of Cypermethrin will be effective.
Common diseases of Soya bean is caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses therefore the following management tecniques will be helpful:
- Do not plant in water logged area or soils that are poorly drained:
- Plant disease resistant variety;
- Effective control of insects;
- Crop Rotation
Watering Water regularly during flowering and pod formation and avoid overhead watering which can cause flowers and pods to fall off. Mulch when the soil warms to greater than 60°F to conserve soil moisture. Add aged compost to planting beds in advance of planting.
Interplant with- Potatoes, cucumbers and maize.
Rotate soybeans and other legumes to add nitrogen to the soil. Soybeans are rarely bothered by pests. Keep the garden clean and free of debris so that pests can not harbor or over-winter in the garden.
Harvest At maturity
The leaves of matures palnts will turn yellow, drop and seeds dry quickly. Soybeans for shelling and fresh use are ready for harvest 65 to 140 days after sowing depending on the variety planted.
Soyabeans reach maturity at the same time; pull the whole plant and hang it upside down to dry. Shell dry beans once the pods are fully dry.
Storing. Green shelled or Shelled soybeans can be frozen, canned or dried. Dried, shelled soybeans can be stored in a cool, dry place for 10 to 12 months.It can be sold to processing companies when the prices are favourable.