Vaccination is the foundation of poultry health management for any flock to perform optimally irrespective of their maternal immunity. It’s more cheaper to vaccinate than to manage diseases.
Vaccination is procedure that is recording a lot of vaccine failure due to improper handling of vaccines and vaccination procedure itself. The main goal of vaccination is to achieve high level of immunity against diseases prevalent in the area.
Factors affecting successful vaccination-
– Source of the vaccines
– Breaking the cold chain during transportation
– Poor water quality
– Incorrect route administration
– Under dosing
– State of health: vaccination of sick birds can lead to disease outbreak
– Level of maternal immunity
– Incorrect handling and administration of vaccines
PROCEDURES FOR SUCCESSFUL VACCINATION
- Clean the water tanks, drinkers or flush the nipple lines thoroughly to remove any deposits of disinfectants or antibiotic;
– Store the vaccine to be used at 2-8 degree celcius;
– Stop use of water sanitizer a day before and the day of vaccination;
– Starve the birds 4 – 5 hours before vaccination so that all of them will have urge to drink;
– Use the quantity of water they can finish within 2 – 3 hours;
– Add Ice to the water to maintain cold chain of vaccine till the end;
– Add skimmed milk or any good water stabilizer;
– Mix the vaccine in small container, then mix it in the tank by stiring gently and make it available for consumption immediately.
Vaccination By Wing Web
- Use the designed applicator the manufacturer recommends;
– Mix on bottle at a time for a vaccinator according to the manufacturer;
– Vaccinate through the wing Web area alone, avoid pucturing muscles or joint;
– The needles used must be clean;
– Prevent fowl pox vaccines spilling on feathers, eyes or mouth;
– Catch and examine vaccinated birds one or two weeks after vaccination, presence of scab at the wing web indicates successful fowl pox vaccination.
Vaccination Of Inactivated/Killed Vaccine
Intramuscular or subcutaneous is the recommended route of vaccination and they are oil base.
– Do not freeze inactivated vaccines
– Allow vaccine to reach room temperature before vaccination
– Use sterilized syringe and needle that gives better penetration;
– caliberate automatic syringes properly to deliver correct dose;
– for subcutaneous choose neck region and intramuscular breast muscle.
Veterinarians or trained personnels are required to avoid head, neck and breast bone
– Store vaccines in a functioning refrigerator at a temperature recommended by the manufacturer and in a clean area;
– Record type of vaccine, manufacturer’s name and expiry date. Avoid picking a wrong vaccine;
– Use the correct number of doses;
– Check the nipples before the vaccination;
– Do not use Chlorinated water, use fresh water from boreholes or well;
– Ensure you go round to encourage them to drink vaccine water;
– Dispose off used vaccine bottles by putting disinfectant and bury;
Veterinarians assistance are required for drawing vaccination schedule of farms and successful vaccination.
Vaccination is one the factors that drives profitability in livestock business for the animals to perform optimally.